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1a)-Manufacturing industries creates employment thereby reduces the rate of employment
– Manufacturing industries helps underdeveloped countries to enjoy a favorable balance of trade with their trading partners: As a country exports manufactured goods, it earns foreign exchange
– Manufacturing industries helps developing countries to diversify their economy : Most of these countries rely heavily on agriculture Alone. Some rely on main mineral Alone for example Nigeria relies very heavily on oil
1b)- Making relevant products: manufacturing industries in-tropical Africa create an environment where the products created for it populace are made with a proper understanding of their needs.
– Job creation: With vast youth unemployment in the tropical Africa , manufacturing is one of the only sectors next to agriculture that can create a significant amount of jobs for the currently unemployed in these areas.
– Participation in the global economy:
Unlike other countries that have strong manufacturing
sectors, tropical Africa countries is limited in its participation in the global economy.
1c)- Inadequate capital; Tropical African people and governments are poor
– Low purchasing power: Most African countries have small populations with low income levels.
– Poor infrastructural facilities: Industrial development depends largely on the provision of adequate transport and communication facilities but in most of the countries these facilities are inadequate
– Competition from foreign goods; Products of local industries face stiff competition from the imported products of long-established and technically more efficient industries abroad
3a)- The North Atlantic Sea Route
– The Panama Canal Route
– The Trans- Pacific Route
– The Cape Route
3b)- It has lead to increased agricultural, mineral and industrial production
– It aids movement of people or labor and capital
– It generates revenue
– it gives rise to employment opportunities
3c)- Rivers should be dredged regularly
– Ships should be equipped with refrigerated holds
– Canal should be constructed to reach landlocked countries
-Loans should be granted to construct and maintain seaports
4a)- It is mostly practiced by peasant farmers.
– It involves a small area of land.
– It employs unskilled labour.
– It is cheaper
One of the; advantages of subsistence farming is that it is cost effective. The reason is that it does not require the huge investments as would otherwise have been needed by a commercial farmer. The implements that are used are easy to acquire and mostly not expensive.
-No hiring of labour;
Another advantage of subsistence method of farming is that it does not require the hiring of labour. The main source of labour is the children and the immediate family members of the farmer. The effect is that money is not expended on labour. This being so, the money for hiring labour is diverted to take care of other pressing matters of the family.
-Source of employment;
To become subsistence farmer does not require any specialized skills or any high level of education. All that is needed is the ability to handle the hoe and cutlass and to plant according the traditional timing of the locality. For these reasons, it is easy for folks to enter into subsistence farming.
-Source of food supply to the family;
One of the main advantages of subsistence farming is that it provides ready food for the family. In most rural families for example, the main source food is the individual farms of the folks. At the basic staples are available for use. Such basic supplies as maize, cassava, plantain, cocoyam etc.
4c) -Family labour supply is unreliable
As the result of rural-urban movement, there is little or no availability of members present to help.
-Crude tools are used
This results in low yield since the use of these tools have limits compared to tractors ,ploughs etc.
– Use of small farmlands
Small farmlands results in small yield.