Jupeb 2018 chemistry Expo

*Jupeb chemistry answers*
*1a*
Acid – Base indicators (also known as pH indicators) are substances which change colour with pH. They are usually weak acids or bases, which when dissolved in water dissociate slightly and form ions. Consider anindicator which is a weak acid, with the formula HIn.
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*2ai*
Bronsted–Lowry theory, also called proton theory of acids and bases states that any compound  that can transfer a proton to any other compound is an acid, and the compound that accepts the proton is a base.
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*4ci.* Hess’s Law of Constant Heat Summation (or just Hess’s Law) states that regardless of the multiple stages or steps of a reaction, the total enthalpy change for the reaction is the sum of all changes.
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5ci. The first ionisation energy is the energy required to remove one mole of the most loosely held electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms to produce 1 mole of gaseous ions each with a charge of 1+.


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*6ai.* complex ion is an ion formed by joining independent molecules or ions to a central metallic atom by coordinate bonds.
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6aii. Ligand

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